Vitamin D May Help Clear Amyloid Plaques Found in Alzheimer's - Mechanism Revealed

in medicine

Researchers have identified the intracellular mechanisms regulated by vitamin D3 that may help the body clear the brain of amyloid beta. Amyloid beta is the main component of plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta, also called Abeta, is a peptide of 36–43 amino acids long that is cleaved from the parent peptide,  Amyloid precursor protein.

Building Blocks of Early Earth Survived Collision that Created Moon

in technology

Unexpected new findings by a University of Maryland team of geochemists show that some portions of the Earth's mantle (the rocky layer between Earth's metallic core and crust) formed when the planet was much smaller than it is now, and that some of this early-formed mantle survived Earth's turbulent formation, including a collision with another planet-sized body that many scientists

Researchers Develop a Potential Low Cost Alternative to Platinum for Splitting Water

in technology

A new technique holds promise for the creation of catalytic materials that can serve as effective low-cost alternatives to platinum for generating hydrogen gas from water that is acidic. The technique for creating a new molecule that structurally and chemically replicates the active part of the widely used industrial catalyst molybdenite has been developed by researchers with the U.S.

Children with autism have a different type of gut bacteria

in medicine

Gastrointestinal problems are common in children with autism and may be associated with compositional changes in intestinal bacteria. The underlying reason autism is often associated with gastrointestinal disturbances has been unknown.

3-D world in our brains - neuron-by-neuron maps of the regions of the mouse brain

in medicine, biology

For the first time, the scientists have produced neuron-by-neuron maps of the regions of the mouse brain that process different kinds of visual information, laying the groundwork for decoding the circuitry of the brain using cutting-edge, genetic research techniques only possible in mice.

Ritalin Targets Prefrontal Cortex in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patients

in medicine, biology

The psychostimulant methylphenidate, known by the brand name Ritalin, is used as part of a treatment program to the control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  Symptoms of ADHD starts before the age of seven years and  affects about 3 to 5 percent of children world-wide. Millions of individuals diagnosed with ADHD are treated by Ritalin.

Ability to recognize another individuals' knowledge and beliefs not unique to humankind

in biology

Many animals produce alarm calls to predators, and do this more often when kin or mates are present than other audience members. So far, however, there has been no evidence that they take the other group members' knowledge state into account.

Frogs Use Calls to Find Mates with Matching Chromosomes

in biology

When it comes to love songs, female tree frogs are pretty picky. According to a new study from the University of Missouri, certain female tree frogs may be remarkably attuned to the songs of mates who share the same number of chromosomes as they do. The researchers found female frogs can hear chromosome difference in the calls of potential mates.