Children with autism have a different type of gut bacteria

in medicine

Gastrointestinal problems are common in children with autism and may be associated with compositional changes in intestinal bacteria. The underlying reason autism is often associated with gastrointestinal disturbances has been unknown.

3-D world in our brains - neuron-by-neuron maps of the regions of the mouse brain

in medicine, biology

For the first time, the scientists have produced neuron-by-neuron maps of the regions of the mouse brain that process different kinds of visual information, laying the groundwork for decoding the circuitry of the brain using cutting-edge, genetic research techniques only possible in mice.

Ritalin Targets Prefrontal Cortex in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patients

in medicine, biology

The psychostimulant methylphenidate, known by the brand name Ritalin, is used as part of a treatment program to the control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  Symptoms of ADHD starts before the age of seven years and  affects about 3 to 5 percent of children world-wide. Millions of individuals diagnosed with ADHD are treated by Ritalin.

Ability to recognize another individuals' knowledge and beliefs not unique to humankind

in biology

Many animals produce alarm calls to predators, and do this more often when kin or mates are present than other audience members. So far, however, there has been no evidence that they take the other group members' knowledge state into account.

Frogs Use Calls to Find Mates with Matching Chromosomes

in biology

When it comes to love songs, female tree frogs are pretty picky. According to a new study from the University of Missouri, certain female tree frogs may be remarkably attuned to the songs of mates who share the same number of chromosomes as they do. The researchers found female frogs can hear chromosome difference in the calls of potential mates.

Why dinosaurs were larger than today's terrestrial mammals

in biology

Why were some dinosaurs able to get so much larger than today's terrestrial mammals? It was hypothesized that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals, because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis).

Notre Dame researchers develop paint-on solar cells

in technology

Imagine if the next coat of paint you put on the outside of your home generates electricity from light—electricity that can be used to power the appliances and equipment on the inside.

A team of researchers at the University of Notre Dame have created an inexpensive "solar paint" that uses semiconducting nanoparticles to produce energy.

Multisensory integration: when correlation implies causation

in biology

In order to get a better picture of our surroundings, the brain has to integrate information from different senses, but how does it know which signals to combine? New research has demonstrated that humans exploit the correlation between the temporal structures of signals to decide which of them to combine and which to keep segregated.